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Конспект лекцій Дніпропетровськ дну 2008


Дніпропетровський національний університет


Факультет української й іноземної філології

та мистецтвознавства

Кафедра перекладу та лінгвістичної підготовки іноземців

O.І. Панченко

ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ

(Конспект лекцій)


Дніпропетровськ

ДНУ

2008


Дніпропетровський національний університет


Факультет української й іноземної філології

та мистецтвознавства

Кафедра перекладу та лінгвістичної підготовки іноземців

O.I. Panchenko

^ THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION

(Lecture Notes and Tests)


Дніпропетровськ

ДНУ

2008

Lecture 1

THEORY OF TRANSLATION AS A SCIENCE


Translation and art are twin processes. Octavio Pas


PLAN


  1. The subject and tasks of the science.



^ The subject and tasks of the science.

Translation is a peculiar type of communication – interlingual communication.

The goal of translation is to transform a text in the Source Language into a text in the Target Language. This means that the message produced by the translator should call forth a reaction from the TL receptor similar to that called forth by the original message from the SL receptor. The content, that is, the referential meaning of the message with all its implications and the form of the message with all its emotive and stylistic connotations must be reproduced as fully as possible in the translation as they are to evoke a similar response. While the content remains relatively intact, the form, that is, the linguistic signs of the original, may be substituted or replaced by other signs of the TL because of structural differences at all levels. Such substitutions are justified; they are functional and aim at achieving equivalence.

Equivalent texts in the two languages are not necessarily made up of semantically identical signs and grammatical structures and equivalence should not be confused with identity.


LECTURE

EQUIVALENCE

Equivalence is the reproduction of a SL text by TL means. Equivalence is not a constant but a variable quantity and the range of variability is considerable. The degree of equivalence depends on the linguistic means used in the SL texts and on the functional style to which the text belongs. E.g.:

Early December brought a brief respite when temperatures fell and the ground hardened, but a quick thaw followed.

В начале декабря наступила краткая передышка, температура понизилась, земля замерзла, но потом быстро началась оттепель.

The messages conveyed by the original and the translaton are equivalent as every semantic element has been retained although some changes have been made in strict conformity with the standards and usage of the Russian language.

^ TYPES OF EQUIVALENCE


Equivalence implies variability and consequently several types of equivalence can be distinguished.

First Type – Formal Equivalence.


Children go to school every morning.

Дети ходят в школу каждое утро.


The content, the structure of the sentence and the semantic components (language units) are similar. Each element of the SL text has a corresponding one in the TL text. But such cases of complete similarity are rather rare.


^ Second Type – Partial Correspondence Equivalence.


Non-corresponding elements may be lexical, grammatical or stylistical. Equivalence of the second type is usually achieved by means of various transformations: substitution or replacements (both lexical and grammatical), additions and omissions, paraphrasing and compensation.


^ All through the long foreign summer the American tourist abroad has been depressed by the rubber quality of his dollar.

Во время продолжительного летнего пребывания за границей американских туристов угнетало непрерывное сокращение покупательной способности доллара.


Although a considerable degree of equivalence has been achieved a number of transformations, certain losses have been incurred, namely, compactness and vividness. They are accounted for by existing discrepancies in collocability (valency).

Attention should be paid to the Stylistic aspect of equivalence because of its importance in achieving the second type of equivalence. The stylistic aspect of equivalence implies the rendering in translation of stylistic and emotive connotations. Stylistic connotations presuppose the use of words belonging to the same layer of the vocabulary (literary, neutral and colloquial). Emotive connotations presuppose the use of words evoking similar connotations. The following example illustrates the rendering of stylistic connotations:


^ Delegates to the conference in San Francisco, April, 1945, from European countries have been traveling three weeks. The German U-boats which were hanging around were most effectively scared off by depth-charges from accompanying destroyers.

Делегаты из европейских стран на Конференцию в Сан-Франциско, открывшуюся в апреле 1945 г., находились в пути почти три недели. Глубинные бомбы сопровождавших эсминцев успешно отгоняли германские подводные лодки, которые все еще шныряли в океане.


The coll er).

Ночью прохожие видели нестерпимо-яркий мертвенный свет не прикрытого щитом уличного фонаря.


Attention should also be drawn to the Pragmatic aspect of equivalence.

Pragmatic equivalence can be achieved only by means of interpreting extra-linguistic factors.


^ Mr. Healey by his decision presented a Christmas package so small that it is hardly even a Christmas stocking-filler.

Меры, на которые решился министр финансов Хили перед самым рождеством, были такими куцыми, что их едва ли можно назвать рождественским подарком.


The literal translation of “a Christmas stocking-filler” – “что они едва ли могли наполнить рождественский чулок” would hardly convey any sense to the Russian receptor unfamiliar with the custom. In this case the pragmatic aspect motivated the translation “a Christmas stocking-filler” by “рождественский подарок”. The addition of the words “министр финансов” is also necessitated by pragmatic considerations.

Here is another example of interesting substitution.


The Elgin marbles seem an indisputable argument in favor of the preservation of works of art by rape.

Статуи и фриз, снятые лордом Элгином с Парфенона и увезенные в Англию, по-видимому, являются неопровержимым доводом в пользу сохранения произведений искусства путем хищения.


The substitution of the subject and the addition of the participle construction convey the necessary pragmatic information. If a detail denoting some national feature is not important enough it may safely be omitted, e.g.


^ He could take nothing for dinner but a partridge with an imperial pint of champagne (J. Galsworthy).

За обедом он съел только куропатку и запил ее бутылкой шампанского.


The word “imperial” does not convey any significant information and may therefore be omitted in the Russian translation without impairing equivalence.

The pragmatic aspect of the content is sometimes closely interwoven with the linguistic aspect and their interaction also requires explanatory additions, e.g.


^ I was sent to a boarding school when I was very little – about five – because my mother and father … couldn’t afford anything so starchy as an English nurse or a French governess (Ilka Chase).

Меня отправили в пансион, когда я была очень маленькой, мне было лет пять, потому что мои родители не могли позволить себе ни настоящей английской няньки в накрахмаленном чепце и переднике, ни чопорной французской гувернантки.


The difficulty there lies not only in the pragmatic aspect of the adjective “starchy” but also in its use in two meanings, direct and indirect, simultaneously (1. накрахмаленный; 2. чопорный).


Third Type – Situational or Factual Equivalence.


The content or sense of the utterance is conveyed by different grammatical and lexical units.

Situational equivalence is observed when the same phenomenon is described in a different way because it is seen from a different angle, e.g.


^ The police cleared the streets.

Полиция разогнала демонстрацию.


Unemployed teenagers are often left without means of gaining food and shelter.

Безработные подростки часто оказываются без средств к существованию.


Hold the line.

Не кладите трубку.


The Commonwealth countries handle a quarter of the world’s trade.

На страны британского содружества приходится четвертая часть мировой торговли.


This type of equivalence also comprises the translation of clichés, orders, warnings and notices, phraseological units and set expressions, formulae of politeness, etc.


^ There were no survivors.

Все погибли.


Fragile – осторожно, стекло;

Keep off, wet paint – не садиться, окрашено;

Many happy returns of the day – поздравляю с днем рождения.


In this way, the third type of equivalence conveys the sense, the meaning of the utterance without preserving its formal elements.

(For a detailed analysis of the levels of equivalence problems and the structural level patterns the reader is referred to the studies of Soviet linguists В.Н.Комиссаров «слово о переводе» and В.Н.Крупнов «сборник научных трудов», вып. 203, с. 183-199).


^ LEVELS OF EQUIVALENCE


Equivalence may occur at different linguistic levels: phonetic, word building, morphological, at word level, at phrase level, at sentence level and finally at text level.


Phonetic level of Equivalence


The sound form of corresponding English and Russian words seldom coincide, consequently this level of equivalence is not common and is of primary importance only in poetic translation.


^ Word-building Level of Equivalence


e.g.: irresponsible – безответственный; unpredictable – непредсказуемый; counterbalance – противовес, еtс.


Morphological Level of Equivalence


e.g.: The report’s proposals were handed to a political committee.

Предложения доклада были переданы политическому комитету.


Equivalence at Word Level


e.g.: She clasped her hands round her handbag. (Agatha Christie).

Она крепко сжала в руках свою сумочку.


Equivalence of Phrase Level


Equivalence at phrase level is of two kinds: a SL word corresponds to a TL phrase (to negotiate – вести переговоры), a SL phrase corresponds to a TL word (Hippies are in revolt against an acquisitive society. – Хиппи восстают против потребительского общества).


Equivalence at Sentence Level


It occurs: a) in phraseology – two is company, three is none – третий лишний; b) in orders and regulations – keep off the grass – по газону не ходить.


Equivalence at Text Level


It is usual in the translation of poetry as seen in the translation of William Blake’s stanza by S. Marshak.

  1. To see a World in a Grain of Sand,

  2. And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,

  3. Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

  4. And Eternity in an hour. (W. Blake, Auguries of Innocence)

4. В одно мгновенье видеть вечность,

1. Огромный мир – в зерне песка,

  1. В единой горсти – бесконечность

  1. И небо – в чашечке цветка.


The translation by S.Marshak may be regarded as excellent. The text as a unity is reproduced most fully and this conception of unity justifies the change in the order of the lines within the stanza.

A strict observance of equivalence at all levels ensures a similar reaction on the part of the S and T language receptors and can be achieved by means of functional substitutions.


LECTURE

^ TYPES OF TRANSLATION


Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. The two are interdependent. (Larson l991, p. 1)

The ideal translation will be accurate as to meaning and natural as to the receptor language forms used. An intended audience who is unfamiliar with the source text will readily understand it. The success of a translation is measured by how closely it measures up to these ideals.

The ideal translation should be…

Translation is a process based on the theory that it is possible to abstract the meaning of a text from its forms and reproduce that meaning with the very different forms of a second language.

Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson l998, p. 3)



Diagram from Larson l998, p. 4

In practice, there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by translators. Some translators work only in two languages and are competent in both. Others work from their first language to their second language, and still others from their second language to their first language. Depending on these matters of language proficiency, the procedures used will vary from project to project. In most projects in which SIL is involved, a translation team carries on the project. Team roles are worked out according to the individual skills of team members. There is also some variation depending on the purpose of a given translation and the type of translation that will be accepted by the intended audiences.

Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. The two are interdependent. (Larson l991, p. 1)

The ideal translation will be accurate as to meaning and natural as to the receptor language forms used. An intended audience who is unfamiliar with the source text will readily understand it. The success of a translation is measured by how closely it measures up to these ideals.

The ideal translation should be…

Translation is a process based on the theory that it is possible to abstract the meaning of a text from its forms and reproduce that meaning with the very different forms of a second language.

Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson l998, p. 3)



Diagram from Larson l998, p. 4

In practice, there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by translators. Some translators work only in two languages and are competent in both. Others work from their first language to their second language, and still others from their second language to their first language. Depending on these matters of language proficiency, the procedures used will vary from project to project. In most projects in which SIL is involved, a translation team carries on the project. Team roles are worked out according to the individual skills of team members. There is also some variation depending on the purpose of a given translation and the type of translation that will be accepted by the intended audiences.

The following three types of translation can be distinguished: equivalent translation, literal translation and free translation.


^ Equivalent translation


Equivalent translation has been considered in the preceding pages. Achieving equivalence is the goal aimed at in translation.


Literal translation


In spite of the fact that there are cases of semantic and structural coincidences they are rather an exception. A literal or word translation is obviously unacceptable because it results in a violation of form, or a distortion of sense, or both.

No desire on the part of the translator to preserve in his translation the lexical, grammatical or stylistic peculiarities of the original text can justify any departure from the norms of the TL.

Literal translation imposes upon the TL text alien lexical and grammatical structures, alien collocability, alien connotations and alien stylistic norms.

In literal translation form prevails over content and the meaning of the text is distorted. Literalism may be lexical, grammatical or stylistic, e.g.


He wagged a grateful tail and climbed on the seat (Georgetta Heyer).

Он благодарно завилял хвостом и вскарабкался на сиденьею


She was letting her temper go by inches (Monica Dickens).

Она понемногу теряла терпение. (Она все больше и больше теряла терпение).


The pragmatic aspect of translation does not admit literalism either – and requires interpreting translation or substitution.


^ The Tory Team, however, aren’t all batting on the same wicket.

The metaphor is taken from cricket, a very popular game in Britain but hardly known to Russian readers.

Однако, консерваторы не едины.

Однако, команда консерваторов играла не дружно.


Translation Loans


Literal translation should not be confused with translation loans. A translation loan is a peculiar form of word-borrowing by means of literal translation. Translation loans are built on the pattern of foreign words or phrases with the elements of the borrowing language, e.g. collective farm is a translation loan of the Russian колхоз but in a full and not in an abbreviated form: oil dollars -нефтедоллары; goodneighbourly relations – добрососедские отношения (a full loan); war effect (a partial loan as number does not coincide).


Free Translation


Free translation, that is, paraphrasing is a special type of translation used as a rule in annotations, précis, abstracts, etc. free translation is rendering of meaning regardless of form. The aim of such translation is to convey information to people in other countries in a most compact and condensed manner.

There is another interpretation of the term “Free translation”.

The translator in this case considers himself as co-author and takes great liberties with the original text resorting to unjustified expansion or omissions.

“^ She burst out crying” is translated as “Слезы показались на глазах моей милой малютки” (Ch. Dickens, tr. By J.V. Vedensky).

TO CONCLUDE: the three parameters of translation are: rendering of contents, rendering of form and observance of TL norms. These fundamentals are of equal significance and are to be duly taken into account in the process of translation. The vast resources of the Russian language enable the translator to achieve excellent and the fundamental principle of translation – what is said in one language can as well be said in another – remains inviolable.


LECTURE

^ GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS


General considerations


Equivalence, as has been pointed in the previous chapter, is achieved by different transformations: grammatical, lexical, stylistic. The present chapter deals with grammatical transformations and their causes. The causes generating these transformations are not always purely grammatical but may be lexicalas well, though grammatical causes naturally prevail due to differences in the SL and TL grammatical structures.

Not infrequently, grammatical and lexical causes are so closely interwoven that the required transformations are of a twofold character. The following example illustrates this point.


The vigil of the U.S. Embassy supported last week by many prominent people and still continuing, the marches last Saturday, the resolutions of organizations have done something to show that the Prime Minister does not speak for Britain.

Круглосуточная демонстрация у здания американского посольства, получившая на прошлой неделе поддержку многих видных деятелей, все еще продолжается. Эта демонстрация и состоявшиеся в субботу походы, а также принятые различными организациями резолюции, явно свидетельствуют о том, что премьер-министр отнюдь не говорит от имени всего английского народа.


A number of lexical and grammatical transformations have been effected in: 1) the long English sentence in which the subject is expressed by three homogeneous members (the vigil, the marches, the resolutions) is translated by two separate Russian sentences. The structure of the English sentence is typical of the structure of brief notes or of leads which usually contain miscellaneous information on the principles of “who, what, when, where and how”. This, however, is not usual in Russian newspaper style. The word демонстрация is repeated as both sentences have the same subject. 2) The word “vigil” has recently developed a new meaning – “around the clock demonstration”. This new meaning is accordingly rendered by two words (круглосуточная демонстрация); similarly, the participle “supported” is also rendered by two Russian words (получившая поддержку); 3) a number of additional words have been introduced: у здания (посольства), состоявшиеся (в субботу походы), а также принятые различными (организациями резолюции). 4) The word “last” has been omitted as its meaning is implied in the Russian adverbial of time (в субботу); 5) The emphatic meaning of the predicate with its object (have done something to show) is conveyed by the adverb явно. 6) The cliché (speak for Britain) is rendered by a corresponding cliché говорить от имени. 7) Finally, the metonymy (Britain) is translated by the words it stands for весь английский народ.

Strictly speaking only the translation of the complex sentence by meaning of two sentences can be regarded as a purely grammatical transformation, whereas all the other transformations are of a mixed character – both lexical and grammatical.


^ Grammatical Features Typical of Modern English


Naturally only some features of Modern English will be considered here.

The deeply rooted tendency for compactness has stimulated a wide use of various verbal complexes: the infinitive complex, the gerundial complex, the participial complex, the absolute nominative construction. The same tendency is displayed in some pre-positional attributes: the N1 + N2 attributive model, attributive groups, attributive phrases. None of them has any equivalents in Russian grammar and as a rule they require decompression in translation. Causative constructions also illustrate this tendency for compactness.


^ He …soon twinkled Paul out of his sulks (R.F.Dalderfield).

Он начал подмигивать Полю и тот перестал дуться.


Translation is sometimes impeded by the existence of grammatical homonymy in Modern English. For example, the Gerund and Participle I are homonyms. The analytical forms of the Future-in-the-Past are homonyms with the forms of the Subjunctive mood: should (would) + infinitive. The difficulty is aggravated by a homonymous form of the Past Indefinite of the verb “will” expressing volition. The Infinitive of Purpose and the Infinitive of Subsequent Action may easily be confused. Grammatical homonymy may often be puzzling and may sometimes cause different interpretations. In such cases recourse should be taken to a wider context, e.g.


^ What we stand for is winning all over the world. (L. Barkhudarov, Lectures).


The translation of the sentence depends on the grammatical interpretation of the –ing form, i.e. whether it is interpreted as Participle I or as a Gerund. According to the former interpretation, the word combination “is + winning” is the form of the Present Continuous Tense; according to the latter, it is a nominal predicate – link verb + Predicative. These different interpretations result in different translations:


  1. ^ То, за что мы выступаем, одерживает победу во всем мире.

  2. Мы стоим за то, чтобы добиться победы во всем мире.


A different grammatical interpretation involves a different political interpretation.


Non-equivalents


Some English grammatical forms and structures have no corresponding counterparts in Russian, others have only partial equivalents. The first group) non-equivalents) includes articles, the gerund and the Past Perfect Tense.

Articles. The categories of definiteness and indefiniteness are universal but the ways and means of expressing these notions vary in different languages.

In English this function is fulfilled by the articles whereas in Russian by word order. Both the definite and indefinite articles in English are meaningful and their meanings and their functions cannot be ignored in translation.

Every utterance falls into two parts – the so-called theme and rheme. The theme indicates the subject of the utterance while the rheme contains the information about the subject. The theme, in other words, represents a known thing, which has probably been mentioned before, whereas the rheme introduces some new information. Thus the theme is the starting point of the utterance and as such it can sometimes introduce a new subject about which the rheme gives some information. In this case the indefinite article is used to indicate indefiniteness. The theme usually occupies the initial position in the sentence. The theme in the English language with its fixed word order usually coincides with the grammatical subject of the sentence. When the theme again occurs in the text it is preceded by the definite article.


A lady entered the compartment. The lady sat down in the corner seat

(P.G.Wodehouse).

The categories of indefiniteness and definiteness are expressed by the indefinite and the definite articles respectively and these categories are rendered by word order in translation.


^ В купе вошла дама. Дама села в углу у окна.


When the articles are charged with some other meanings apart from the categories of definiteness and indefiniteness lexical means come into play in translation.

If these meanings are not rendered lexically the Russian sentence is semantically incomplete.


^ The influence and authority of the Secretariat depends to an extent (though not nearly to the extent that is popularly supposed) on the talents of one individual – the Secretary-General. (Peter Lyon, The U.N. in Action).

Влияние и авторитет Секретариата зависит в какой-то степени (хотя и не в такой степени, как обычно считают) от способностей одного человека – Генерального секретаря.


^ The Gerund. Another non-equivalent form is the gerund. It fulfils various functions in the sentence and can be translated by different means.


“I wonder at Jolion’s allowing this engagement”, he said to Aunt Ann

(J. Galsworthy).

«Я удивляюсь, что Джолион разрешил эту помолвку», – сказал он тетушке Энн.


The gerund modified by a proper noun in the possessive case is translated by a subordinate clause.

The gerund used in the function of a prepositional object is also rendered in translation by a subordinate clause.


^ The mayor of the island is talking of opening up its lush and virgin interior to beef-and-dairy cattle ranching.

Мэр острова поговаривает о том, чтобы использовать сочные, нетронутые луга его внутренней части для мясомолочного хозяйства.


The so-called half-gerund may also be translated by a subordinate clause.


^ There was nothing more to say: which didn’t prevent, as the game went on, a good deal more being said. (G.F.Snow).

Говорить больше было не о чем, но это не помешало тому, что в ходе игры было сказано еще очень много.


The Past Perfect Tense. The meaning of the Past Perfect Tense is usually rendered in Russian by some adverbs of time.


^ The stone heat of the day had gentled down. (I.Shaw).

Жар, который шел днем от раскаленных камней, уже спал.


But in many cases the Past Perfect Tense is translated by the Russian Past Tense without any temporal specification.


The mainspring of his existence was taken away when she died… Ellen was the audience before which the blustering drama of Gerald O’Hara had been played. (M. Mitchell).

Опора его существования исчезла с ее смертью. …Эллин была той публикой, перед которой разыгрывалась бурная драма Джеральда О’Хара.



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